It comes from Central America and Central Africa. Bean seeds have more protein than beef or pork, and ry is better in amino acid composition (like a chicken egg) and in calorie content (2-3 times). Shoulder beans contain 10-14% dry matter, 1.6-6.0% protein (mature seeds – up to 20% protein), 2.4-3.4% sugars, 20-30 mg% vitamin C, and a lot of vitamin B1, B2, provitamin A, in the ash – a lot of calcium, iron and phosphorus salts. Lima beans in unripe seeds contain 22-33% dry matter and 9.8-12.3% protein.
Beans are a dietary food product for both children and the elderly. It is useful for diabetics, increases the resistance of the human body to infectious diseases, is used in diseases of the liver and gallbladder. They are used in food boiled, fried, canned and frozen.
Beans are heat demanding. Seeds germinate at + 10 … 12’C, the optimum temperature for plant development is +25 … 2TC. Even mild frosts cause plant death. Does not tolerate heavy shading. Short day plant. Differs in high demands on soil moisture, especially in the period after flowering. It develops best on loose, highly fertile soils, does not tolerate acidic soils.
The best predecessors of beans are nightshade crops and root crops. Seeding 5-6 cm. Sowing pattern – wide-row (45-60 cm) with the installation of supports (trellises). The optimal plant density (60-80 pcs. Per 1m2), can be grown (like peas) in the wings of sugar or grain corn. Early ripening culture – 40-65 days pass from germination to harvesting the first beans. Care consists in loosening row spacings, removing weeds and, if necessary, conducting watering and protection measures against diseases and pests.